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MANCHESTER: 

R. S. CHRYSTAL. 11, Market Street. 

LONDON: 

SIMPKIN. MARSHALL, HAMILTON. KENT. & CO. LIMITED 



ONE SHILLING 



NET 




MANCHESTER: 

R. S. CHRYSTAL, 11. Market Street. 

LONDON i 

SIMPKIN. MARSHALL. HAMILTON. KENT. & CO. LIMITED. 



ONE SHILLING NET. 



INTRODUCTION. 



SJ2HIS Handbook of Penmanship contains a comprehensive System embracing all the instruction 
required to secure Legibility, Speed, and Symmetry in writing. The series of Movement 
Exercises which is given in combination with the letter forms add interest, to the lessons 
while developing a perfect command of the pen. To Teachers in Elementary Schools, the 
portion devoted to an analysis of the letters should be of great value, as being applicable 
to any style of writing. Teachers of Adult Classes are furnished with a method of instruction 
as attractive as it is thorough ; candidates for the Civil Service appointments and home 

* 

students can, with a little application, make a distinct improvement in their writing in a very 
short time. This System has stood the test of many years practice both in the Manchester 

i 

Grammar School, the Continuation Classes under the School Board, and in private tuition. 
The Author confidently recommends this Manual to Teachers of Penmanship, and to . all who 

- 

aspire to become skilful in the Art of Writing. 



POSITION 



Sit fairly erect with both feet flat on the 
ground the right foot a little in advance of the 
left. Your left side - should be nearest the desk 
and your body supported by your left arm, so 
that the right may have freedom of movement. 
The lower edge of the book must be parallel 
with the edge of the desk and well up so as 
to make room for the arm. Keep your book a 
little to your right, except for vertical writing 
when it should be directly in front of you. Avoid 
stiffness in position but don't lounge; the direction 
of the writing is largely governed by the attitude 
assumed. 




90 




SLANT. 

■ 

* 

Uniformity of Slant is indispensable to good writing and is the result of correct movement. 
An effective method of acquiring this object is to rule a number of lines at the required 
slant upon a loose sheet of paper and place it under the sheet written upon so that the lines 
may appear faintly through. 



HOLDING THE PEN. 



Place the penholder at about one inch and a quarter from the pen point against the first 
joint of the second finger, and hold it there with the end of the thumb, letting it cross the 
first finger in front of the knuckle joint. Now rest the first finger lightly on top of the pen. 
Lower the third and fourth fingers bent," and use the surface of the nails as a sliding support 
for the hand. Let the wrist lie flat without touching the desk and mind that both points of 
the pen touch the paper evenly. 



MOVEMENT. 



The accompanying cut shows the arm in position 
for writing. Holding the pen as already described, the 

arm is l^id lightly upon the desk in a natural position 
of about 6o° slant. The muscle in front of the elbow 
acts as a movable slide to carry the hand across the 
paper, the hand itself sliding at the same time on 
the surface of the nails of the third and fourth fingers. 
The same relative position of the hand and arm must 
be maintained throughout. Do not move the hand 
independently of the arm. Form the small letters by 
extending and contracting the fingers that hold the 
pen, moving the arm across simultaneously. The 
Capital letters are best made by means of the muscle 
of die forearm only, keeping the hand and fingers 
perfectly rigid. 




^^//////////////^ 




THE SMALL LETTERS -height, i space. 



ANALYSIS. 

* 

An Analysis of the letters is of 
great value in obtaining uniformity. 
Most of the letters consist of the 
following 

PRINCIPLES. 




All downward lines are on a 
slant of 52 0 . 

The First Principle is a 
downward oblique straight line. 

The Second Principle - is an 
upward right curve. Slant 30 0 . 

The Third Principle is an 
upward left .curve. Slant 30 0 . 

The Fourth Principle is the 

loop. 

The Fifth Principle is the 
direct Oval. 

The Sixth Principle is an 
inverted Oval. 

The Seventh Principle is a 
Compound curve. 

A full description of the 
Principles is given as they are 
required. 



First Principle. 
A straight downward line. 
Slant 52°- 



izi 



Second Principle. 
A right upward curVe. 
Slant 30 °. 





Third Principle. 
An upward left curve. 
Slant 30 0 . 

Prin. 2, t, 2. 
Width, 2 spaces. 



Prin. 2, 1, 2, 1, 2, 
Width, 3 spaces. 



Prin. 2, 1, 2, i, 2. 
Width, 3 spaces. 




Prin. 2, 1, 2. 
Width, 2 spaces. 



Prin- 3» 3i h 3> 2 
Width, 4 spaces. 




Prin. 3, i, 3, 1, 2. 
Width, 3 spaces, 



Prin. 3, 1, 2. 
Width, 2 spaces. 




Prin. 3, 1, t, 2, 
Width, 2 spaces. 




JPkin. 3, 3 down, 2. 
Width, 2 spaces. 




Prin. 2, 3 down, 2. 
Width, 2 spaces. 



Prin. 2, 3 down, 2. 
Width, 2 spaces. 



Prin. 3, 3 down, 2, 1, 2, 
Width, 3 spaces. 




Prin. 2, 3, 2. 
Width, 2 spaces. 



8 



THE 




Of the extended letters, some 
have loops and others have 
straight lines as continuants. 

The looped letters are formed 
of the Fourth Principle and one 
or more of the other Principles. 

Each of the long letters has 
its corresponding small letter ; the 
lower part of the 1 is the i, the 
last part of the h and n are 
alike, and so on. 




THE FOURTH PRINCIPLE. 

Commence on the base line 
with a right curve at a slant of 
30 0 to the head line, change to 
5 2 0 to the top. Make a left turn 
and a straight downward line at 
5 2 0 . Height, 3 spaces. Width of 
loop, ^ space. 



EXTENDED LETTERS. 











PRIN. 2, 1 , 2. 

Width, 2 spaces. 
Height, 2 spaces. 



Prin. 3, 3, 2, 1, 2. 
Width,- 3 spaces. 
Height, 2 spaces. 



Prin. 2, 1, 3, j, 2, 
Width, 3 spaces. 
Length, 3^ spaces. 



Piun- 3> 3. 2 » 2 - 
Width, 3 spaces. 

Length, 2^ spaces. 



Prin. 4, 2. 
Width, 2 spaces. 
Height, 3 spaces. 



Prin. 4, 2. 
Width 2 spaces. 
Height, 3 spaces. 



Prin. 4. 3. '» *- 
Width, 3 spaces. 
Height, 3 spaces. 









Prin. 4, 3, 2, 1, 2. 
Width, 3 spaces. 
Height, 3 spaces. 



Prin. 2, 4. 

Width, 2 spaces. 
Length, 3 spaces. 



Prin. 3, 1, 2, 4. 
Width, 3 spaces. 
Length, 3 spaces. 



Prin. 3, 3, 2, 4. 
Width, 3 spaces. 
Length, 3 spaces. 



Prin. 3, 1, 4. 
Width, 2 spaces. 
Length, 3 spaces. 



Prin. 4 and reversed loop. 
Length, 5 spaces. 
Width, 2 spaces,. 



The downward loops have the 
jroportions as the upward. . 



9 



THE CAPITALS ANALYZED. 



FIFTH PRINCIPLE CAPITALS. 





The Fifth Principle is the 
direct oval. 

The outer curve only is to 
be shaded ; the inner parallel 
with it. The oval is at a slant 

of 52°. 

Principle 5. 



SIXTH PRINCIPLE CAPITALS. 




The balance depends upon 
the centre loop, which must be j 
at right-angles with the main | 
slant, and }i of the whole 
length from the top. 

Principles 3, 2, 3, 5. 




The loop at the base is on 
the main slant and not hori- 

1 

zontal. Preserve the oval in 
finishing. 

Prin. 5, 3, 2. 




The inner oval is 2 /i the 
length of the letter and parallel 
with the outer. 

Principles 3, 5- 





Commence at the base and 
describe an oval at a slant of 
5 2 0 . The downward stroke is 
shaded on the full. 

Principle 6. 




In joining the two down- 
strokes don't thicken the 
centre. 

Prin. 6, 3, 2. 




The angle at the top should 
be at the same height as the 
first curve , the last line is 
2 spaces of length. 

Prin. 6, 2, 1, 3. 




The loop must be narrow 
and the horizontal curve at 
the base not too pronounced. 

Prin. 6, 3, 2. 




The loop at the base is on 
the main slant ; the oval to be 
shaded. 

Principles 6, 4. 




Begin with 6th Prin. and 
blend into a left curve. Finish 

with a compound curve 2 

— spaces of height 

Prin. 6, 3, 2, 3. 



First part like the V ; the 
second part has only 2 spaces 
of height. 

Prin. 6. 3, 2, i, 2. 





. Make the first part exactly 
like the U, up to the angular 
joining at 2 spaces of height. 
Finish with a loop. 

Prin. 6, 3, 2, 4. 




Avoid making any angle 
at the top. Oval at the base 
is 30 0 slant. 

Prin. 3, 2, 3. 




Begin with an upward 
left curve and do not make 
the top angular. The top 
loop is wider than the lower. 

Prin. 3, 2, 3. 



10 



FIGURES. 




The figures are ij^ spaces in 
height, except the 6, 7, and 9, which 
are one half space longer. 




r- *T 




SEVENTH PRINCIPLE CAPITALS. 



The Seventh Principle is 
a compound curve, slant 52 0 , 
and finishes with an oval, 
slant 30 0 . 



Make the 7th Prin. down- 
^ ward and increase the slant, 
as it represents an up stroke. 

Prin. 7, r, 3, 2. 



Begin with a downward 
_ stroke as above. At the 
base of next line make a 
narrow curve. Finish with a 
left curve 2 spaces. 
Prin. 7, 3, 2. 



Begin with a downward 
line. The turn in the centre 

'( ^'//(y — ' s a narrow curve - 

Prin. 7, 3, 3, 3, 2. 





SEVENTH PRINCIPLE CAPITALS 





Begin with 7th Prin.; 
bring the top close to the 
main stem, the highest 
part of the compound 
curve just above it. 

Prin. 7, 3, 2, 3. 




Same as T except the 
small line at right. 

Prin. 7, 3, 2, 3. 




A right upward curve 
2 spaces, downward direct 
curve ending in ovaL 

Prin. 2, 7, 3, 3, 2. 



Begin as in the H. The 
loop in the centre must 
slant at a right-angle with 
( / the main slant 

Prin. 2, 7, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2. 



Make a right upward 
curve, and finish with 7th 
Prin. 




Prin. 2, 7. 







Begin with a right curve 
and carry the 7th Principle 
along the line to form a 
narrow loop. 

Prin. 2, 7. 

Commence on the base line 
with a right curve, form a 
loop to the head line and 
finish with the main stem. 

Prin. 4, 2, 7. 

Make the upward curve at 
left freely and preserve the 

Prin. 7, 6, 2. 



Same as P to centre. The 
loop must be at right-angles 
with the main slant 

Prin. 7, 6, 2, 3. 



Same as B to centre. The 
loop must be at right-angles 
with the main stem. 

Prin. 7, 6, 2, 3, 2. 




MOVEMENT EXERCISES 



. Note. — Each of these Exercises should extend 
across a sheet of foolscap paper. 

No. i. — Sliding Movement. — Move the hand 
and arm together across the paper. 

No. 2. — CoMitiNED Movement. Move the hand 
and arm as before but make the slanting lines by 
extending and contracting the fingers. 

No. 3. — Muscular Movement. — An Exercise 
in which the muscle of the forearm is employed ; 
the wrist is kept rigid. 

Nos. 4 and 5. — Co'mrineo Movement. — The 
upward strokes are made with the Arm Movement, 
and the downward with the finger. 

No. 6. — Triple Movement. — The upward strokes 
are made with the sliding movement ; the down 
strokes with the finger movement ; and the ovals by 
rolling the arm lightly on the fleshy part of the 
forearm while moving the fingers independently. 



12 



EXERCISES ON THE SMALL LETTERS 



Each Exercise to extend across the page. 




t 





V 







13 



1 



THE LOOPED LETTERS, 



Each Exercise to extend across the page. 




SPEED EXERCISES, 



15 



STANDARD BUSINESS ALPHABET, 







yy/yy/yyy/y yj 





//yyy/s yyy/yy a 




16 



EXERCISES ON THE CAPITALS. 




Our analysis shows us that the Capitals are 
chiefly formed of the 5th, 6th, and 7th Principles ; 
that is, a Direct Oval, an Inverted Oval and a 
Compound Curve, or Main Stem. These exercises, 
as well as those on the combined Capitals which 
follow should be made with the Muscular Movement, 
independently of the fingers. Each copy must be 

practised separately and carried across the page. 
The learner will not find the exercises difficult 
but very useful. 






COMBINED CAPITALS. 



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25 



CIVIL SERVICE WRITING. 



handwriting 
characteristic 



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alphabet The letters must be without ornament of any kind, the 6nal stroke in each word 
being made as short as possible. It is customary to make the spaces between letters and 
words wider than in copper-plate writing ; loops are also somewhat shorter and much wmer. 
The average slant of the best specimens is 7 tf. All turnings are round, and up and down 
strokes are nearly the same thickness. As there is sometimes a good quantity of matter m 
the examination papers, students should learn to write at a fair rate of speed, and this can 
be best accomplished by practising such exercises as are found in this book. After carefully 
studying the letter forms the learner should combine them in movement exercises, begmmng 
s,owly and gradually increasing the speed. It is best to practise on unruled foolscap paper 
with a broad-nibbed pen. - 



THE CIVIL SERVICE ALPHABET. 









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I 2 3 U 5 






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Wtlli^rru 1: IOJO. 

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LETTERING 



Although Lettering is no longer taught in schools, there are many who require it in 
their ordinary pursuits to whom a knowledge of the letter forms is an advantage. It is not 
within the sphere of this Manual to give more than the standard alphabets which follow 
but these, and the variations which the learner's ingenuity will suggest, are enough for all 
practical purposes. The Block letters, arranged in squares, will serve to show the proportions 
of the Upright Roman, the Slanting Roman, and other ornamental letter^: these should be 
practised until the learner is thoroughly acquainted with the forms, like inordinary writing 
Ihe German and Old English Text are written with a quill pen, the point of which ma & v 
be broad or narrow as required. The shaping of a quill pen is no easy matter, and the 
Author has quite a respectable-sized volume on this subject. A simple and ready way to 
prepare the pen is to buy an ordinary cut quill, and laying it on a sheet of glass, back 
upwards, cut it diagonally across, leaving the left side slightly the shorter. Froiu the very 
outset you should try to draw the letters freehand : if you use the pencil for more than the 
spacing you will never acquire that freedom which characterises the finished Penman. Very little 
flourishing should be used: sometimes, by way of ornament, it is necessary ; in that case, 
care must be taken to follow the rules of composition so as to produce a harmonious whole.' 
Flourishing, for its own sake, is now entirely out of date, and is looked upon by practical 
men rather as a monument of misspent energy than an accomplishment to be admired. 



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Title Page 

Introduction ... , ... 

Position 

Slant 

Holding the Pen 

Movement ... 

Analysis^Small Letters ... 
„ Extended Letters 
„ Capital Letters 
„ Capitals and Figures 

Movement Exercises 

Exercises— Small Letters... 
„ Extended Letters 

Speed Exercises ... 

Standard Alphabet 

Exercises on Capitals 

Combined Capitals 

Variety Capitals 



Business Head-lines 
» n 

A Model Letter ... 
Business Forms ... 
Civil Service — Instructions 

Alphabet ... 
Head Lines 



1! 



■ • • 



Round Hand Alphabet ... 
Round Hand Copy 
German Round Hand 
: — Instructions 

Egyptian Block Letters 
Old English Text 
German Text.*. 
Upright Roman 
Slanting Roman 



Page 

20 
21 
22 

24 

25 

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27 
28 

29 
30 

32 
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37 
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MANCHESTER: 
Henry Blacklock & Company Limited, Printers.